Bazel Blog

Preliminary sandboxfs support and performance results

Back in August of 2017, we introduced sandboxfs: a project to improve the performance and correctness of builds that have action sandboxing enabled. Today, after months of work to stabilize the codebase, we are happy to announce that preliminary support for sandboxfs is available in Bazel HEAD after April 13th!

This post presents the performance measurements we have gotten so far when using sandboxfs. As these metrics look promising, the true goal of this post is a call for action: we know a bunch of you have previously expressed that sandboxing was unusable due to its overhead so we want to know if sandboxfs makes things better for you.

Sandboxing basics

Before delving into the details, let's quickly recap what action sandboxing is and how sandboxfs is supposed to benefit it. (Refer to the previous post for a much more detailed explanation.)

Sandboxing is Bazel's ability to isolate the execution of each build action (think "compiler invocation") from the rest of the system. This feature restricts what actions can do so that they only have access to the tools and inputs they declare and so that they are only able to write the outputs they promised. In this way, we ensure that the build graph doesn't have hidden dependencies that could poison the reproducibility of the build.

More specifically, Bazel constructs an execroot for each action, which acts as the action's work directory at execution time. The execroot contains all input files to the action and serves as the container for any generated outputs. Bazel then uses an operating system-provided technique—containers on Linux and sandbox-exec on macOS—to constrain the action within the execroot. It is worth noting that the preparation of the disk layout and the actual sandboxing are orthogonal.

Traditionally, Bazel has been creating the execroot using symlinks, thus creation scales linearly with the number of inputs. Creating all these symlinks is costly for actions with thousands of inputs and unfortunately these are not uncommon. This is where sandboxfs is supposed to help.

sandboxfs is a FUSE file system that exposes an arbitrary view of the underlying file system and does so without time penalties. Bazel can then use sandboxfs to generate the execroot "instantaneously" for each action, avoiding the cost of issuing thousands of system calls. The downside is that all further I/O within the execroot is slower due to FUSE overhead. We hypothesized that this was a tradeoff with potentials for time savings and we are at a point where we can prove it. Let's see how this has played out so far.

Performance results

The experiments below were run under the following build machines:

  • MacBook Pro 2016: Intel Core i7-6567U CPU @ 3.30GHz, 2 cores, 16GB RAM, SSD.
  • Mac Pro 2013: Intel Xeon CPU E5-1650 v2 @ 3.50GHz, 6 cores, 32GB RAM, SSD.
  • Linux workstation: Intel Xeon CPU E5-2699 v3 @ 2.30GHz, 6 cores, 32GB RAM, SSD.

And here are the specific build times obtained from a variety of different targets. All these builds were clean builds, and each was run 10 times and averaged to minimize noise:

ID Target Machine No sandbox Symlinked sandbox sandboxfs sandbox
BL Bazel MacBook Pro 2017 581 sec 621 sec (+6%) 612 sec (+5%)
BW Bazel Mac Pro 2013 247 sec 265 sec (+7%) 250 sec (+1%)
IW iOS app Mac Pro 2013 1235 sec 4572 sec (+270%) 1922 sec (+55%)
CW C++/Go library Linux workstation 1175 sec 1318 sec (+12%) 828 sec (-30%)

Let's ignore the strange CW build results for a moment.

As you can see from all builds, sandboxfs-based builds are strictly better than symlinks-based builds. The cost of sandboxing, however, varies widely depending on what's being built and on what machine. For BL and BW, the cost of sandboxing is small enough to think that using sandboxing unconditionally is possible. For IW, however, the cost of sandboxing is significant in either case. That said, for IW we see the massive time savings of the sandboxfs-based approach, and this (slow iOS builds) is the specific case we set to fix at the beginning of the sandboxfs project.

These results are optimistic but we have also observed cases where sandboxfs builds are slower than symlinked builds. I wasn't able to reproduce those when preparing this blog post but be aware that it's entirely possible for you to observe slower builds when using sandboxfs. We have some work to do before we can gain more confidence on this.

Now, what's up with CW? Note that sandboxfs-based builds are faster than without sandboxing. This makes little sense: how can it possibly be that doing more work results in a faster build? We don't really know yet, but the measurements were pretty conclusive. One possible explanation is that using sandboxfs to expose the sources of the actions somehow reduces contention on srcfsd (the other FUSE file system we use in our builds, which exposes the monolithic Google repository) and makes its overall behavior faster.

Usage instructions

Convinced that you should give this a try? Excellent. Use the following steps to install sandboxfs and perform a Bazel build with it. Be aware that due to the current status of sandboxfs (no formal releases), these may change at any time.

  1. Ensure you are using a Bazel build newer than April 13th or wait for the future 0.13.x release series.

  2. Download and install sandboxfs so that the sandboxfs binary ends up in your PATH. There currently are no formal releases for this project so you will have to do a HEAD build from GitHub using Bazel.

  3. (macOS-only) Install OSXFUSE.

  4. (macOS-only) Run sudo sysctl -w vfs.generic.osxfuse.tunables.allow_other=1. You will need to do this after installation and after every reboot. This is unfortunately necessary to ensure core macOS system services work through sandboxfs.

  5. Run your favorite Bazel build with --experimental_use_sandboxfs.

That's it!

If you see local instead of darwin-sandbox or linux-sandbox as an annotation for the actions that are executed, this may mean that sandboxing is disabled. Pass --genrule_strategy=sandboxed --spawn_strategy=sandboxed to enable it.

Next steps

We cannot yet recommend using sandboxfs by default nor we can't convince you yet to enable sandboxing unconditionally due to its non-zero cost. But the current status may be sufficient for you to enable sandboxing in some cases (especially during release builds if you are not doing so yet).

Here are some things we are planning to look into:

  • Further investigate what can be optimized within sandboxfs. Some preliminary profiling routinely points at the CPU being spent in the Go runtime so it's unclear if fixes will be easy/possible. (Due to personal curiosity, I've been prototyping a reimplementation in Rust and have a feeling that it can significantly cut down CPU usage in sandboxfs.)

  • We know that symlinked sandboxing is faster than sandboxfs in some cases. Investigate what the cutoff point is (as a number of action inputs, or something else) and implement a mode where we only use sandboxfs in the cases where we know it will help most.

  • Improve the protocol between sandboxfs and Bazel so that we are confident in making a first release of sandboxfs for easier distribution. If we had binary releases, we could even bundle OSXFUSE within the image we ship so that you didn't need to mess with sysctl, for example.

  • Pie-in-the-sky idea: reimplement sandboxfs as a kernel module. This is really the only way to make sandboxing overhead minimal, but is also the hardest to maintain. On the bright side, note that sandboxfs (excluding tests) is only about 1200 lines and that the tests and Bazel integration are fully reusable for any implementation—this rewrite may not be as daunting as it sounds.

We know that many of you have previously raised the bad performance of sandboxing as a blocker for enabling it. We are very interested in knowing what kind of impact this has on your builds so that we can assess how important it is to continue working on this. Please give the instructions above a try and let us know how it goes! And also, let us know if you want to contribute!

By Julio Merino